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Peter Hallam MS FRCS (Orth), Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon

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Acromion

The lateral extension of the spine of the scapula, forming the highest point of the shoulder and connecting with the clavicle at a small oval surface in the middle of the spine.

Arthroscopic

Arthroscopy (also called arthroscopic surgery) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which an examination and sometimes treatment of damage of the interior of a joint is performed using an arthroscope, a type of endoscope that is inserted into the joint through a small incision.

Bursa

A bursa  is a small fluid-filled sac lined by  membrane with an inner layer of viscous fluid (similar in consistency to that of a raw egg white). It provides a cushion between bones and tendons and/or muscles around a joint.

The subacromial bursa is the  membrane located just below the acromion. The capsule extends above the humeral head to form a bursa between the humeral head and the overlying acromion.

Clavicle

The clavicle, or collarbone, is a long bone of short length that serves as a strut between the scapula and the sternum.

Glenoid Labrum

The glenoid labrum (glenoid ligament) is a fibrocartilaginous rim attached around the margin of the glenoid cavity in the shoulder blade. The shoulder joint is considered a 'ball and socket' joint. However, in bony terms the 'socket' (the glenoid fossa of the scapula) is quite shallow and small, covering at most only a third of the 'ball' (the head of the humerus). The socket is deepened by the glenoidal labrum.

Humerus

The humerus is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.

Labrum

See Glenoid Labrum

Scapula

 The scapula or shoulder blade, is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone).

Sternum

The sternum or breastbone is a flat bone that lies in in the middle front part of the rib cage.

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Glossary